Like any medication these prilosec facet effects vary in their severity and what might be delicate to at least one person might result in a a lot of serious reaction in others. If you are doing get any of those prilosec side effects then it's terribly important that you contact your doctor while doable before they perhaps start to harm your health in different ways that. prilosec side effects long termMustard Gas

Mustard Gas(1,5-dichloro-3-thiapentane) or H, yprite, sulfur mustard, Kampstoff Lost, the most successful poison gas in World War One,is a chemical warfare agent which got its name from the odor of the impure version which smells like mustard, garlic or horseradish ( however in its pure form in it colourless and odorless).Sulfur mustard is an organic compound portrayed by the formula (ClCH2CH2)2S and its class is related to cytotoxic, vesicant chemical warfare agents. There are many methods in which sulfur mustard is synthesized including that of the Depretz ( shown in the synthesis diagram below), Meyer, Meyer-Clarke Method. Chemically speaking mustard gas is a simple "thioether" or sulfide

Mustard gas is an extremely detrimental gas, with symptoms lying dormant in the body for over 2 weeks, the reason for this being that mustard gas is not very soluble in water but it is in fat and therefore it would take a longer amount of time to travel through the body. It's component's ability to bond to the guanine nucleotide in DNA makes mustard gas particular harmful to cellular health, with severe cases of over exposure leading to mass cellular death or even cancer.

The physiological effects are a wide variety due to mustard gas's unique ability to bond to guanine or alkalizing property. Many of the side effects/consequences range from blisters to fatal 3rd degree burns. The most common effects of mustard gas have to to with prolonged exposure to open areas of skin such as: debilitating chemical burns, blisters, conjunctivitis, miosis ( not meiosis). Also when inhaled it can lead to serious respiratory issues by damaging mucous membranes and causing pulmonary edema.

The white spheres are hydrogen atoms, the yellow sphere is a sulfur atom and the green spheres are chlorine atoms
molecular
molecular


structural
structural











BELOW ILLUSTRATES HOW MUSTARD GAS ATTACKS THE BODY VIA SKIN ABSORPTION:
 
 
 
 
 mustard gas
 
 | nucleophilic attack of the carbon
 | by the sulfide
 V
 intermediate sulfonium salt
 | attack by water
 |
 V
 hemi-mustard + <span style="color: #ff0000;">**HCl**</span>
 | attack by water
 |
 V
 thiodiglycol + <span style="color: #ff0000;">**HCl**</span>
 | internal displacement
 |
 V
 1,4 thioxane + <span style="color: #ff0000;">**HCl**</span>
 


Properties
Molecular Formula
C4H8Cl2S
Molar Mass
159 g/mol
Density
1.27 g/ml, liquid
Solubility to Water
Negligible



synthesis
synthesis

The Figure to the right shows that synthesis of mustard gas beginning with 1 Sulfur atom (S) and 2 Chlorine atoms (Cl) being added to 2 Hydrogen (H) quadruple bonds. (* oops the 2 represents 2 carbon plus 4 hydrogen)







Mustard gas was first synthesized and characterized by the German Fredrick Gunthrie in 1860, however it is suspected that mustard was possibly developed as early as 1822 by M. Depretz. Mustard gas' first use was in July of 1917 when German soldiers used mustard gas against British soldiers during World War 1. The Germans had secretly been engineering them and the Allied Powers did not being to use mustard gas till the November of 1917. Mustard gas was utilized buy spraying it as an aerosol (mixed with other chemicals of course) it was also dispersed from aerosol bombs, land mines artillery shells and rockets. Only about 1 % of the cases were fatal, however, killing was not its purpose; its purpose was to incapacitate its enemies and keep them in their trenches while the opposition could muster air strikes.

The following videos are a series of videos on the battle of Yprise and the fist release of mustard gas:











Sadly there are not many other other recorded/ feasible ways in which to utilize mustard besides that of chemical warfare, furthermore there is no record of mustard gas morally benefiting human advancement either. Although some could argue that, practically speaking, mustard gas advanced the field of chemical weaponry and modern technology as it increased the knowledge of atom manipulation and was a helpful deterrent of the opposing enemy. However there is an ironic usage to mustard gas. Mustard gas has been known to cause cancer but ironically enough i can also be used to help cure it! Research in 1946 concluded that a variation of mustard gas nitrogen mustard reduced the size of a mice tumors from that experiment of nitrogen mustard has been implemented in many of the modern cancer fighting drugs and is mainly being used to cure cancer of the lymph glands.


The controversy is that though through the discovery of mustard gas people have found a way to fight cancer, one can still not help thinking about those who suffered die to the gas. Morally, there is the same question: how many people should suffer for the "greater good". Many of those persons exposed to the mustard gas suffered terribly painful injuries and for what? So that the opposing enemy could save their ammunition.This substance also raises another question as to why things should be made solely for chemical weapons and have no other use? Of course the countering argument would be that there has been good to come from the making of mustard gas (i.e. fighting cancer).

I believe that it is necessary for chemical weapons to be developed, not only chemical weapons but it is necessary for all technology to develop. Only 1% of the medical cases having to do with mustard gas were fatal and those were only due to extremely prolonged exposure. Mustard gas was only very effective during World War 1, nowadays there is enough technology available so that mustard gas can be used without the adverse effects. Modern technology also allows for quick decontamination if anyone should come into contact with mustard gas. They would decontaminate someone by simplyto use peroxy acids (RCOOH, where R=C7H15, C9H19, C11H23, C13H27 ), as they react within a few seconds, and the reactions rate can be catalyzed. My final point would be that people need to realize that war is inevitable with the world having so many different cultures, religions, traditions, etc. and since war is inevitable those who go to war need to be more prepared than the enemy (technology wise). Many great bits of technology have surfaced from war efforts and they continue to benefit the civilian sector/ society tody.







Citations


"Facts about Sulfur Mustard." Emergency Preparedness and Response. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 16 Jan 2009 <http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/sulfurmustard/basics/facts.asp>.

Holland, Rebecca. "Mustard Gas." Molecule of the MOnth. 1991. Bristol University. 15 Jan 2009 <http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Chemistry/MOTM/mustard/mustard.htm>.

"Mustard Gas." Council of Foreign Relations. 2009. Council of Foreign Relations. 15 Jan 2009 <http://www.cfr.org/publication/9551/>.




Alex's Biology HL Site




Molecule Log # 3: Ibuprofen!



molecular
molecular
structural
structural




















Molecular Formula
C13H18O2

Molecular Weight
206.29 g mol-1
Molecular Composition
75.69 % C, 8.8 % H, 15.51 % O
Number of Chiral Centers (stereocentres)
1
Another Name
propanoic acid
melting point
75 - 77 oC
what is it?
non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug




Synthesis

ibuprofen synthesis
ibuprofen synthesis



The two main methods of synthesis are The Boot process and The Hoechst process

Examples of Commercial Use:

  • Advil
  • Motrin
  • Nurofen

What it is Used for:

Ibuprofen is used to relieve the symptoms of headaches, backaches, menstrual pain, dental pain, neuralgia, rheumatic pain, muscular pain, migriane, cold and flu symptoms and arthritis. It has also been recently claimed that ibuprofen can help aid in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Brand Names: ( i do not endorse these)

  • Advil® Caplets®
  • Advil® Children's
  • Advil® Gel Caplets
  • Advil® Infants' Concentrated Drops
  • Advil® Junior Strength Chewable Tablets
  • Advil® Junior Strength Tablets
  • Advil® Liqui-Gels®
  • Advil® Migraine®
  • Advil® Tablets
  • Genpril® Caplets ®
  • Genpril® Tablets
  • Haltran®
  • IBU®
  • Ibu-Tab®
  • Menadol® Captabs®
  • Midol® Cramp
  • Motrin®
  • Motrin® Caplets®
  • Motrin® Children's
  • Motrin® Drops
  • Motrin® IB Caplets®
  • Motrin® IB Gelcaps®
  • Motrin® IB Tablets
  • Motrin® Infants' Concentrated Drops
  • Motrin® Junior Strength
  • Motrin® Junior Strength Caplets®
  • Motrin® Migraine Pain Caplets®

Side Effects

  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • gas or bloating
  • dizziness
  • nervousness
  • ringing in the ears
  • unexplained weight gain
  • fever
  • blisters
  • rash
  • itching
  • hives
  • swelling of the eyes, face, throat, arms, hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs
  • difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • hoarseness
  • excessive tiredness
  • pain in the upper right part of the stomach
  • upset stomach
  • loss of appetite
  • yellowing of the skin or eyes
  • flu-like symptoms
  • pale skin
  • fast heartbeat
  • cloudy, discolored, or bloody urine
  • back pain
  • difficult or painful urination
  • blurred vision, changes in color vision, or other vision problems
  • red or painful eyes
  • stiff neck
  • headache
  • confusion
  • aggression

History
Ibuprofen was discovered in 1960 by Stewart Adams and then patented in 1961. It was introduced to the USA in 1974 for rheumatoid arthritis.



Commercials


In this video you see them advertising with a celebrity/athlete.


Here they use humor ;) Anything to get the message across. But as you can see each video is aimed at a different audience. One is for parents the other for athletes.



Works Cited

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/ibuprofen/uses_and_side_effects.htm

http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/ibuprofen/drug_action.htm

Ibuprofen%2BCapsules|4518,00.html

Ibuprofen%2Band%2BOxycodone%2BTablets|1430,00.html

http://www.drugs.com/ibuprofen.html

http://www2.ups.edu/faculty/hanson/c251lab.01/ibuprofen.gif




Molecule Log # 2: Methanol or hydroxymethane, methyl alcohol, methyl hydrate, wood alcohol, carbinol, is the simplest alcohol and a highly flammable colorless liquid. It is very hygroscopic and is an important material in chemical synthesis.


molecular formula
CH3OH

molar mass
32.04 g/mol
appearance
colorless liquid
density
0.7918 g/cm³, liquid
boiling point
64.7 °C, 148.4 °F (337.8 K)
melting point
–97 °C, -142.9 °F (176 K)
solubility to water
fully miscible

external image moz-screenshot-2.jpg



structural
structural
molecular
molecular



Uses of Methanol
  • in perfume
  • a solvent in the paint and varnish industry
  • the manufacture of formaldehyde
  • an anti-freeze in car radiators
  • it also is a promising alternative to our current petrol fuel dependency
  • windshield washer fluid
  • helps in water treatemnt plants
  • used in camping and boating stoves
  • laboratory solvent

A Brief History of Methanol

The earliest record of the use of methanol is when the early Egyptians used a mixture of substances, one of which was methanol, in their embalming process. The got the methanol from the chemical decomposition of wood. HOWEVER the first isolated use of the substance was in 1661 by Robert Boyle. In the 1970's because of the gas shortages people started to look for new/ alternative fuels. Methanol was accessible and affordable so mixtures of Methanol and Petrol were quite common. Recently, in 2006, astronomers discovered a 300 billion mile wide cloud of methanol in space.

Methanol as a Fuel

Methanol burns at a lower temperature than gasoline and is less volatile. One of the major concerns with the mixture of methanol and gasoline is the fact that being hygroscopic it absorbs water directly from the atmosphere. this would be a problem becuase the extra moisture would inevitably separate the mixture of petrol and methanol therefore making the mixture obsolete. So the mixture must be sealed completely for it to be successfully used. The going rate for Methanol is 47 cents per gallon.

There were not any videos on methanol that i could find, but here are a few about ethanol (which is very closely related). PLEASE REMEMBER that these videos are payed for by major corn producers and are in many ways bias...



Here is another interesting video that has not so much to do with ethanol/methanol but does have interesting information about biomass and waste turning into fuel.




Where is Methanol Found in Nature?


Wood (obviously) and Mint! Yes that's right Mint! Its extracted through steam distillation; The best type of Mint to get Methanol from is Corn Mint ( see below)


Mint Julep Cream Pie Recipe
Ingredients:
Mentha arvensis
Mentha arvensis

2/3 cup sugar
1/4 cup cornstarch
dash salt
2 1/4 cups milk
2 3-ounce packages cream cheese, cut into 1/2-inch cubes
3 slightly beaten eggs
3 tablespoons bourbon or other whiskey
2 tablespoons green creme de menthe
1 teaspoon vanilla
Vanilla Nut Crust

VANILLA NUT CRUST:
1 cup all-purpose flour
1/4 cup finely crushed vanilla wafers
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup lard or shortening
3 tablespoons finely chopped pecans
3 to 4 tablespoons water
Directions:
In a 2-quart saucepan stir together the sugar, cornstarch and salt. Gradually stir in the milk. Add the cubed cream cheese. Cook and stir over medium heat till mixture is thickened and bubbly. Cook and stir for 2 minutes more. Gradually stir about 1 cup of the hot mixture into the beaten eggs; return all to saucepan. Return mixture to heat; cook and stir for 2 minutes more. Do not boil. Remove from heat.

Stir in bourbon or other whiskey, green creme de menthe, and vanilla. Turn into prepared Vanilla Nut Crust. Cool. Chill at least 4 to 6 hours. To serve, dollop or pipe whipped cream atop and garnish with fresh mint if desired.

VANILLA NUT CRUST:
In a mixing bowl, combine flour, vanilla wafers and salt. Cut in lard or shortening till pieces are the size of small peas. Stir in the chopped pecans. Sprinkle 1 tablespoon water over part of the mixture; gently toss with a fork. Push to side of bowl. Repeat, using 2 to 3 tablespoons more water, till all is moistened. Form dough into a ball.

On a lightly floured surface flatten dough with hands. Roll into a 12-inch circle; transfer to a 9-inch pie plate. Trim pastry to 1/2 inch beyond edge of pie plate. Flute edge. Prick bottom and sides with tines of a fork. Bake in a 450F oven for 10 to 12 minutes or till pastry is golden. Cool on wire rack.
Makes 8 servings.



Mint Julep Beverage

Ingredients:
1 cup water
1 cup sugar
mint julep
mint julep

2 Tbsp. Lemon rind
1/2 cup fresh lemon juice
1 cup fresh mint leaves, washed & chopped fine
Ginger Ale
Directions:
Boil water, sugar, and lemon rind for 5 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in juice. Bruise mint leaves and add to mixture, stirring. Let stand for a few hours; then strain into a jar with lid. Refrigerate until serving. (May store 2 to 3 weeks.)

When making the julep, pour ginger ale into glasses and add syrup to taste (2 to 4 tablespoons per serving). Garnish with mint leaves or fresh raspberries.

Serves 10 to 15.

Note: This recipe can easily be doubled or quadrupled for use at parties or for serving large numbers of guests.


Pie Recipes




Works Cited

http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=mint+recipes&btnG=Google+Search&aq=f&oq=

http://recipes.epicurean.com/recipe/22618/mint-julep.html

http://www.chemistrydaily.com/chemistry/upload/0/08/Methanol_struktur.png

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanol#Feedstock

http://recipes.epicurean.com/recipe/11296/mint-julep-cream-pie.html


Molecule Log # 1: Methane

Well methane is actually a chemical compound consisting of 1 Carbon atom and 4 Hydrogen atoms or the structural formula of CH4. It is in the form of a colorless gas and has uses such as fuel and heating.'It is the smallest hydrocarbon and the lightest stable organic molecule' (http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/METHANE/Methane.html)

external image moz-screenshot-1.jpg
structural formula
structural formula

molecular + structural formula
molecular + structural formula


molecular formula
CH4
molar mass
16.0425 g/mol
appearance
colourless gas
density
0.717 kg/m3, gas
boiling point
-182.5 °C, 91 K, -297 °F
melting point
-161.6 °C, 112 K, -259 °F
solubility to water
3.5 mg/100 mL (17 °C)

Uses of Methane


There are two major uses of methane are as fuel and industrial uses. Methane can be converted into the form of compressed natural gas and can be then used as a vehicle fuel. It can also be used to heat homes by steam boiler or gas turbine. This is said to be a more environmentally friendly fuel as it created or outputs less carbon dioxide than other hydro carbons such as petrol. NASA is currently trying to utilize methane's high flammability and use it somehow as rocket fuel!

History/Methane in Nature

  • Methane is found in nature mainly in natural gas fields, organic fermentation and also found in solid landfills
  • Comes from cow and sheep belches and excrement
  • As the permafrost in the northern tundra melts (due to global warming) this also releases a good amount of methane gas


Methane as a greenhouse gas


Methane is the number 2 greenhouse gas ( second only to water vapor) and has a net lifetime of approximately 8.4 years sustained in the atmosphere. The amount of methane in our atmosphere has increased by 150% since 1750. Methane is found naturally in wetlands, oceans and hydrates. However, this sharp increase is mainly do to the increase of anthropogenic emissions such as landfills, livestock, waste treatment and biomass burning. So in essence the increase of methane is do to the increased demand of the human population.

  • 23 times more harmful than carbon dioxide
  • 3rd largest contributor to global warming

A way that methane gas could help the world: instead of harm the earth. This video shows how as China is the leading country in coal usage and how coal distillation can give out methane gas AND how they plant to use this gas in an environmentally friendly way.

Here's another documentary in which methane gas is cited as a main cause in global warming:


Works Cited

<http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/METHANE/Methane.html>

<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methane#Sources_of_methane