external image Estradiol.jpg
Estrogen

Estrogen is a hormone found in females that allows for the growth of female sex organs, such as breasts, and also helps to maintain regularity in the menstrual cycle. Estrogen is also found in supplements, including birth control pills, that enlarge breasts and help to control irregular menstrual cycles (which is why some women take birth control pills for their periods) .

There are three common types of estrogen that occur naturally in women - estradiol, estrone, and estriol. Estrone is weaker then estradiol and more estrone is found in post-menopausal women than estradiol.



Estriol
molecular weight:
288.39
molecular formula:
C18H24O3
structural formula:





Estrone
molecular weight:
270.37
molecular formula:
C18H22O2
structural formula:





Estradiol

molecular weight:
272.39
molecular formula:
C18H24O2
structural formula:








Citations:
**http://www.worldofmolecules.com/emotions/estrogen.htm**
Picture of Testosterone
Picture of Testosterone



Testosterone


molecular weight:

molecular formula:
C19H28O2
structural formula:


Testosterone the male sex hormone and, like estrogen, it is a steroid that is part of the androgen group. Testosterone was the “original”, or the first, anabolic steroid.

So…What are the effects of testosterone on humans?

Well, testosterone aids in the growth and development of the male sex organs and of a male in general. The effects can fall in either one of the following categories or both – virilizing and/or anabolic. Some virilizing effects of testosterone are:
· Growth of the penis,
· Formation of the scrotum,
· Deepening of the voice, and
· Beards and chest hair

These effects can also fall into a category known as “secondary sex characteristics”.

Some anabolic effects of testosterone are:
· Growth of muscle mass,
· Growth of muscle strength,
· Increased bone density,
· Increased bone strength,
· Increase in height, and
· Maturing bones

There is also what is known as “Early Postnatal Effects” of testosterone. Some of these include:
· Strong body odor (like that of adults),
· Acne (increased amount of oils on skin and hair),
· Pubic hair develops,
· Growth spurts,
· Hair on upper lip and/or sideburns, and
· Additional hair, such as underarm hair

These effects of testosterone not only occur in males, but can occur in females too.

Another type of effect that testosterone has on humans is known as “Advanced Postnatal Effects”. Some examples of this are:
· More frequent erections,
· Extending of pubic hairs,
· Increased development of facial hair (beard, mustache, and sideburns),
· Increased appearance of additional hair such as chest hair,
· Male fertility/Development of Sperm,
· End of bone maturation and height growth,
· Deepening of Voice,
· Growth of jaw and the remodeling of the facial, structure,
· Increased muscle strength, and
· Increased muscle mass


Adults also have effects that are caused by testosterone. As an adult grows older, the level of testosterone can decline and the effects of the testosterone can also decline. As testosterone levels decline, the maintenance of muscle mass, muscle strength, bone density, bone strength, the frequency of erections, and the physical and mental energy of the adult also decreases.




I b3t YoU dIdN’t Kn0w ThAt…


Testosterone, originally, was primarily used as a therapeutic method of replacing testosterone in males that didn’t have enough of it (called hypogonadism). This allowed the beneficial development of the body, increase in physical strength, and an increase in mental energy with rare side effects. Then, in the 1940s, testosterone and other anabolic steroids began to be taken as a correction to problems such as:
© Infertility,
© Erectile dysfunction,
© Osteoporosis,
© Dissatisfaction of males with the size of the penis,
© Dissatisfaction in height,
© Need for bone marrow stimulation,
© The reversal of anemia, and
© Stimulation of the appetite

As you probably know, anabolic steroids were used to enhance the status of the muscles, increase strength, and to increase endurance, which created numerous scandals.




*FuN fAcTs!*
© Testosterone was first extracted from a bull in 1935.
© In the late 1940s, testosterone was known as the “anti-aging wonder drug”, which is similar to today.
© Scandals and Publicity in the 1980s caused the prohibition of anabolic steroids (testosterone included) in sports events.
© In North America, testosterone is available in many forms such as liquid form, or oil, for injection, tablets for oral ingestion, and skin patches and gels for absorption.

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Adrenaline!!!

Also known as epinephrine, adrenaline was the first hormone to be discovered!!! It is produced in the adrenal glands and is constantly being made in minute amounts. When a person is stressed, scared, anxious, or has any other type of stress, the glands produce more adrenaline. This is why you feel a thrill on rollercoasters and other high-flying rides at amusement parks. As a result, heart rates increase, along with energy levels, awareness, blood level and strength. (For you Twilight fans, Edward was telling the truth when he said, "Adrenaline rush, very common, you can Google it." Lol.) When this happens, the "fight or flight response" occurs; the body prepares itself for combat (the "fight" aspect) or it prepares for an escape (the "flight" aspect).

In 1905, it was discovered that adrenaline was a hormone because it was produced in one organ and then carried by the blood to another organ where it affects the organ's function.


Adrenaline
Molecular Formula
C9H13NO3
Molecular Weight
183.204 g/mol
Structural Formula
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Citations:

"Epinephrine (adrenaline)." Student Resource Center Gold. 20 Nov. 2006. Gale. Schenectady High School. 2 Feb. 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/basicSearch.do>.
"What Is Epinephrine Compound Name?" Pharmacy Reviewer. 15 Nov. 2008. 2 Feb. 2009 <http://www.pharmacyreviewer.com/forum/bronchodilators/9400-what-epinephrine-compound-name-compound-molecular-formula-molar-mass-compound-principle-use-com.html>.