Those with pre-existing liver and heart issues, and allergies ought to ask their doctor initial before taking OTC Prilosec. Prilosec aspect effects might also occur when the patient is taking contraindicated medicines to treat heart disease, blood thinning drugs, anxiety medication, and anti fungal medicines. To avoid negative Prilosec aspect effects, one should always talk to a doctor before shopping for it over the counter. prilosec side effects long term

JESICA’S SCIENCE PAGE
acid reflux

RADICAL MOLECULE RESEARCH PROJECT: MELANIN
Melanin
Melanin


Molecular Weight
318.283 [g/mol]
Molecular Formula
C18H10N2O4
What is Melanin?
Melanin is considered to be a polymer. A polymer is a linkage of small units which forms a chemical chain; a complex molecule. So as you can tell melanin has a very high molecular weight. Melanin is found in the skin, hair, eyes (iris), nervous system, the glands, the brain, the genes, the muscles, intestines, the heart and the liver. Melanin is a pigment that determines skin, hair, and eye color. It is made up of cells known as melanocytes which are produced in the epidermis. In skin there are two types of the melanin pigment: eumelanin granules and the phaeomelanin granules. The eumelanin granules appear to be round and smooth and tend to produce brown skin pigmentation. The phaeomelanin granules have an irregular shape and they produce more of a lighter colored pigmentation. This is the reason for having lighter skin color than others or having darker skin color.
How is Melanin Formed?
Tyrosine (Tyrosinase)→Dopa→(Intermediates)→ Melanin
Process of Melanin
Process of Melanin

Tyrosinase is anenzyme that acts on the amino acid, tyrosine. Tyrosinase is a copper-protein complex. Its function is to supply oxygen in order to oxidize tyrosine which then results in a chemical substance called Dopa. Dopa is then oxidized to many other forms such as a yellowish compound called dopa-quinone then to a red compound called dopachrome, then to a purple substance called indol-quinone. The process of oxidation continues in order to form polymers. Soon they are present in the cell as a black and brown granules. Soon the particles called melanosomes are attracted to these polymers and then they are soon being distributed by the melanocytes. After this, they are then free to divide up and produce.

Layers of the skin
Layers of the skin

The Epidermis is the outer layer of the skin. This layer contains no nerves or blood vessels. It contains the melanin pigment which determines the color of the skin. As you can see the dermis is below the epidermis and this layer does contain blood vessels and nerves.
The Role of Melanin in Skin
Melanin plays a crucial role in human skin. Its function is to absorb the ultraviolet (UV) light that is given off by the sun. This will keep the skin from being damaged. When the sun is revealed on the skin it therefore causes an increase in melanin pigment in order to protect the skin from damaging.
Negative Effect of Melanin in the Skin
If there is a loss or non-production of melanin in the skin, then the skin begins to have white patches. This disorder is known as vitiligo. Doctor’s theory to this disorder is that it may be due to an immune system malfunction. It can also be caused by heredity. It has been said that some people have accounted this problem and stated that vitiligo is activated by sunburn or emotional distress.
The Effect of Melanin with Chemicals
Melanin acts very differently with chemicals such as cosmetics and drugs are exposed to the body. When some of these substance are in contact with the body, they tend to bind with melanin therefore disrupting the process that the body has with the skin. This then leads to the loss of melanin to function properly which will then result in the person having a skin problem.
Another disorders Caused by Melanin: Melasma

What is Melasma?
Melasma is a skin disorder that appears on the skin as dark or brown spots. A theory states that melasma maybe caused by a high production of Melanin. The question that now stands is what the increase production of melanin? The answer to this is unknown. But the theory is that these factors may activate its high production:
  • Heredity factors and hormone fluctuation/production: the rash is most common in pregnant females
  • Prolonged sun exposure
  • Use of birth control pills
  • Certain medications like tetracycline and anti-malarial drugs (derived from quinine)
The Role of Melanin in Eyes
Melanin in eyes is very important. The role that it plays is it is able to determine the color that the eyes contain. If a person has blue eyes then it is precise to say that there is a low amount of melanin that is present in the iris of the eye. If the person’s eyes are brown or has a dark color, then there is a high amount of melanin present. These dark or brown eyes people are considered to have a “good amount” of this pigment.
My Thoughts
Melanin is a natural part of the human body and we need it to protect our skin from the harmful rays of the sun. This molecule has "made the news" by others discovering all the negative effects that it can do to our body. For example, we can have Melasma and/or vitiligo. These disoders tend to affect darker skin people more than people with lighter skin color.With these disorders people tend to hate the side effects that melanin gives such as dark patches that tend to appear on the face or if there is less melanin in the body then there are white spots that appers on the body. So people decideded to fix these dark spots by going through the expensive process of putting on a mask for hours. In the video it states that such a mask cost 8 hundred dollars.

I believe that it's a good thing that doctors have noticed the problems caused by Melanin in this time period rather than later on in the future because we have alot of technology and alot of brilliant doctors and scientists at present time. Who knows what the future holds; if there is going to be more well educated people or less? Along with the problem that Melanin brings also tags along the new urge of invention, technonogy, and the increase of knowledge that people have with trying to find a cure for the effects of Melanin. Such new invention involves the product called Cosmelan. Cosmelan helps deteriorate the dark spots that are caused by Melanin.


Citations
King, R. A., Summers, C. G., Haefemeyer, J. W., & LeRoy, B. Facts About
Albinism. In Facts About Albinism. Retrieved December 31, 2008, from
http://albinism.med.umn.edu/facts.htm

Melanin Substance Summary. NCBI PubChem Substance. Retrieved December
31, 2008, from http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/
summary.cgi?sid=7929&viewopt=PubChem

Sawandi, T., M.D. (2000-2008). Melanin and Skin Health- Assta Shkur Speaks
[Melanin and Skin health]. Retrieved December 31, 2008, from
http://www.assatashakur.org/forum/afrikan-wholistic-health/
20498-melanin-skin-health.html

Third Eye Health [Blue Eye:The Melanin Scarcity]. Retrieved December 31,
2008, from http://www.thirdeyehealth.com/blue-eye.html

Vitiligo. (1998-2008). Revolution Health. Retrieved December 31, 2008, from
http://www.revolutionhealth.com/conditions/skin/vitiligo/
vitiligo?section=section_02
http://www.totalderm.com/images/cosmo-2.gif (picture)









Organic Molecule: Nitrogen
Facts about Nitrogen
WEEK 1external image n2_molecule_sm.gif

Atomic Mass: 14.00674 amuMelting Point: -209.9 °C (63.250008 K, -345.81998 °F)Boiling Point: -195.8 °C (77.35 K, -320.44 °F)Number of Protons/Electrons: 7Number of Neutrons: 7Classification: non-metalCrystal Structure: HexagonalDensity @ 293 K: 1.2506 g/cm3
external image h_ncycle.gif
*
Nitrogen was discovered in 1772 by Rutherford. It is used to produce nitric acid. Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere in gas form, in the ocean, and in the soil. In the soil, nitrogen removes the heat and then freeze the soil. Nitrogen is essential for plants because they intake nitrogen and carbon dioxide. 78% of the earth is made up of nitrogen, so us humans also breaths it. Without nitrogen we may also die the same way that the plants would if they couldn't intake this gas.
Use of nitrogen:
Nitrogen is used in metals, tires, plants, humans, animals, bottom line nitrogen is found in all living things
external image gfon373l.jpg



WEEK 2
DNA
DNA STRAND
DNA STRAND
external image dna-2.jpg


·DNA is also known as deoxyribonucleic acid
·Most DNA can be found in the cell nucleus
·The main purpose of DNA are to store information. The information are then being stored as the 4 bases which are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.
·Humans are made up of 3 billion bases
·The organization of these bases helps layout the information that is needed and available for building and maintaining an organism
·The cool thing about DNA is it automatically makes copies of itself ; it's replicatable
The cool thing about DNA is it automatically makes copies of itself ; it's replicatable
DNA is a double helix meaning that there are two strands that are wrapped together
DNA is can be found in blood, semen, skin cells, tissue, organs, muscle, brain cells, bone, teeth, hair, saliva, mucus, perspiration, fingernails, urine, feces, etc.
DNA=genes=proteins
Adenine
Adenine

Adenine
Guanine
Guanine

Guanine
Cytosine
Cytosine

Cytosine
Thymine
Thymine

Thymine
The 4 bases which make up DNA


Citation
May, P. (n.d.). DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. In DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid.
Retrieved November 10, 2008, from http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/dna/
dna.htm

What is DNA. (2008, November 7). Genetics Home Reference: You Guide to
understanding Genetic Condition. Retrieved November 5, 2008, from
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna
Week 3- H2O Water
Water = H2O
Water = H2O
The connection of water molecule
The connection of water molecule
external image 04.gif

Facts about H2O
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen molecule and one oxygen molecule.
It has a polar covalent bonding.The shape of a water molecule is a tetrahedron. Since oxygen has a high electro negativity that means that the oxygen atom is slightly negative charged. Such atoms are then referred to as dipole. A water molecule is held together by hydrogen bonding. This a weak type of bonding. Water also have some physical properties. Such properties include a high melting and boiling point temperature and it requires more heat to break down the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules. Another physical property of water is it has high adhesion properties as a result of its polar body. Adhesion is the physical attraction of unlike molecules. Water also has a high surface tension. Surface tension is a measure of the amount of work required to increase the surface area. Water is also considered to be a good solvent becasue of its polarity. Other substance are able to dissolve better.

Citation
__Atoms, Molecule, Water, and pH. (1996). Atoms, Molecule, Water, and pH.
Retrieved November 15, 2008, from http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/
atom-h2o.htm
Water Molecule. (2003-2005). National Master- Encyclopedia. Retrieved November
15, 2008, from http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/water-(molecule)
Water Structure and Science. (2008). Water Structure and Science. Retrieved
November 15, 2008, from http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/