Liane's Science Page


TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL


SABOOR (L) NATALIE =) this is a chemical reaction that occurs in saboor's brain causing him to be helpless towards someone as amazing as Natalie. And Natalie loves it when that happens because saboor looks like the cutest little thing <3 its honestly adorable.



external image moz-screenshot-14.jpg
3D structure of  THC
3D structure of THC


chemical formula: C21H30O2
molecular mass: 314.45
low solubility in water
external image hemp.jpg

THC as a Drug


Tetrahydrocannabinol was discovered in 1964 in Israel. It is the oldest hallucinogenic drug in the world. Despite its "recent" discovery, research shows that cannabis has been used since 100AD by Chinese herbalists. They did not use it as a hallucinogenic drug, however, but as medicine. Cannabis in the ancient times has also been used as woven fabric.

THC has low solubility in water, allowing it to be administered in the body through inhalation or smoking. The inhaled vapors then cause physiological effects in a person. While cannabis itself is an addictive drug, the THC does not cause this addiction. The THC, as it is the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, causes the state of relaxation, heightened pleasure, and the hallucinations experienced in doing this drug.

APPLICATION


THC works by attaching itself to a cannabinoid receptor. As this happens, it interferes with neurotransmitter functions. THC affects bodily functions such as motor skills. It also affects hormone regulation, hunger, perception, memory, and information retention. How it affects a person, however, depends on the dosage and the person.

THC in the News....


THC, as mentioned before, is found in marijuana. It's not the first time that talks of legalizing marijuana has surfaced. Medical marijuana, as we know it. Medical marijuana is said to cure diseases and many symptoms of disorders. Research in the UK has cited marijuana as a drug that can shrink leukemia tumors. If THC form marijuana is extracted properly, then its medicinal effects will be met. Alzheimer's can also be potentially treated by marijuana. THC can reduce the swelling of the brain and even form new brain cells. Another purpose of THC is its ability to reduce nausea. Its prevention of nausea can help bulimic patients, as well as to alleviate morning sickness for pregnant women. This, obviously, should not be an excuse for pregnant women to smoke marijuana. Other components of the drug could travel to the umbilical cord and feed the baby with hallucinogenic drugs, leading to permanent mental damage.

This reason, amongst others, is why lawmakers continue to ban marijuana. "Medical marijuana" will be abused by many. Many people can find loopholes in the pharmaceutical market in order to legally purchase marijuana. Medically, THC also has negative effects. The negative effects of marijuana in the body remains in THC, no matter how void it is of the components of cannabis.

Currently, pure THC are available by prescription. THC can be made into pill-form, in order for it to be taken orally. This is most commonly used as an appetite booster for AIDS patients, as well as other patients with eating disorders. Researchers are trying to test other purposes of THC, as well as its relative drugs, called cannabinoids. Before the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) can approve these drugs to be medically safe, researchers must find ways to rid THC of its side effects. The government still holds marijuana to be illegal, but it should be known that there is a difference between THC and marijuana itself.


DOPAMINE


3D model of a dopamine molecule
3D model of a dopamine molecule


Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter (makes it difficult to fire neurons in the brain) that influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Dopamine is part of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system controls behavior that is very engaging, such as excitement.

  • Dopamine is linked with Schizophrenia....an excess dopamine is a cause of Schizophrenia. Drugs used to treat this disorder blocks dopamine receptors.
  • Lack of dopamine leads to Parkinson's disease







Dopamine's IUPAC name: 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
structural formula of dopamine
structural formula of dopamine

Chemical formula: C8H11NO2
Mass: 153.17844 g/mol



Dopamine is part of the controversy of overprescription. Overprescription is a result of drug treatment for psychological diseases. Dopamine is a major component of Ritalin, a drug prescribed to children with ADHD. The dopamine in Ritalin helps children focus more at their task and controls their frontal lobe better. The frontal lobe is the filter inside the brain that sifts information. Without dopamine's inhibition, the neurons are firing at a much faster rate, and the result is hyperactivity.







HEMOGLOBIN


Hemoglobin's complex structural formula
Hemoglobin's complex structural formula


  • Hemoglobin is found in the blood. It is essentially composed of proteins bonded together.
  • They act as oxygen carriers in the blood.
  • It is what makes the blood red

The name hemoglobin was derived from hemo (heme) meaning groups and globin meaning apoproteins (globe-shaped).

colored image of a hemoglobin sturcture
colored image of a hemoglobin sturcture
Empirical formula: C738H1166N812O203S2Fe

Hemoglobin Deficiency:

A low level of hemoglobin leads to anemia. Anemia is a very common blood disorder. It is caused by the loss of red blood cells. This loss leads to poor oxygen circulation. This affects a person's bodily functions as it causes fatigue and stress on the organs. Anemia can also be caused by blood loss. In fact, anemia can be present in girls because of heavy menstrual periods.



CONIINE


Coniine
Coniine



external image 207px-Coniin_-_Coniine.svg.pngIUPAC Name: (2S)-2-propylpiperidine
Molecular Formula: C8H17N
Mass: 127.227 g/mol


Coniine is an alkaloid found in hemlock. Its characteristic odor is attributed to the presence of coniine.

Coniine made its mark in history by killing Socrates. The hemlock that Socrates drank contained coniine.

Oddly enough, animals find some plants containing coniine addictive. There was a breakout of coniine poisoning in Italy because some animals could not stop eating these plants.

Hemlock is most commonly found in Britain.

It infects many crops and even cereal!